Moritz Michaël Daffinger (Vienna, 1790-1849), Pâquerettes, Bellis perennis L.
BOTANICAL NAME Bellis perennis L.
COMMON NAME Daisy, English daisy, lawn daisy, Bruisewort, Pâquerettes. Known since Roman times, its name may come from the Latin word for war bellum as one said to be bellicose is warlike. Also possible name is derived from Latin Bellus (Wikipedia).
AYERVEDIC NAME Gulabahaar TCM NAME Nvwangju
PARTS USED Flowers, leaves & roots
NATIVE REGION Europe, North Africa, India
GEOGRAPHIC DISTRIBUTION Worldwide, naturalized in temperate regions, including the United States.
BOTANICAL DESCRIPTION Leaves-simple, spatulate with toothed edges, springing from a basal rosette. Flowers-central disk with ray flowers, one per un-leafed stem
HARVESTING GUIDELINES Ubiquitous, but never harvest more than you need: flowers usually gathered when they first appear; roots and leaves all year. This plant can be found blooming through the light snow on Adak, AK, and can be harvested year round in some regions of the world.
CONSTITUENTS Triterpene saponins, anthocyanins, flavonoids, polysaccharides, polyacetylenes and the phenolic compounds (apigenin, caffeic acid, p-coumaric acid, gallic acid, genistein, kaempferol, luteolin, myricetin, procyanidin-C1, quercetin, rutin hydrate, vanillic acid, ferulic acid, salicylic acid, sinapic acid, chlorogenic acid, hesperedin, naringenin, rosmarinic acid and isorhamnetin. Karakas et al 2014) and (Yoshikawa 2008).
MEDICINAL USES Roman soldiers used Bellis to soak bandages applied to sword cuts (Wikipedia).
Pliny the Elder (77, translated 1855) THE PLANT CALLED Bellis: TWO REMEDIES. Bellis1 is the name of a plant that grows in the fields, with a white flower somewhat inclining to red; if this is applied with Artemisia vulgaris,2 it is said, the remedy is still more efficacious.
Matthiolus (1626) puts the wound-healing effect in the foreground and calls Bellis "a real wound herb" that is supposed to heal even the "broken cranium".
Culpeper (1653) writes of the "Little Common Daisy": "The leaves and sometimes the roots, are used, and are reckoned among the traumatic and vulnerary plants, being used in wound-drinks, and are accounted good to dissolve congealed and coagulated blood, to help the pleurisy and peri-pneumonia. Bellis. Daisies: are cold and moist in the second degree, they ease all pains and swellings coming of heat, in clysters they loose the belly, are profitable in fevers and inflammations of the testicles, they take away bruises, and blackness and blueness; they are admirable in wounds and inflammations of the lungs or blood.
Gerald (1597) A. The Daisies do mitigate all kind of pains, but especially of the joints, and gout proceeding from an hot and dry humour, if they be stamped with new butter unsalted, and applied upon the pained place; but they work more effectually if Mallows be added thereto. B. The leaves of Daisies used amongst other pot-herbs do make the belly soluble; and they are also put into clysters with good success, in hot burning fevers, and against inflammations of the intestines. C. The juice of the leaves and roots sniffed up into the nostrils, purgeth the head mightily of foul and filthy slimy humours, and helpeth the megrim. D. The same given to little dogs with milk keepeth them from growing great. E. The leaves stamped taketh away bruises and swellings proceeding of some stroke, if they be stamped and laid thereon; whereupon it was called in old time Bruisewort. The juice put into the eyes cleareth them, and taketh away the watering. G. The decoction of the field Daisy (which is the best for physic use) made in water and drunk, is good against agues, inflammation of the liver, and all other the inward parts.
Triterpenoid glycosides obtained from Solidago virgaurea L. and Bellis perennis L. (Asteraceae) inhibit the growth of human-pathogenic yeasts (Candida and Cryptococcus species) (Bader et al 1990) and Desevedavy (1989) found saponins in Bellis were effective against the fungus that causes Dutch Elm disease.
Bellis perennis has been used for the treatment of bruises, broken bones, and wounds. Bellis perennis has also been used in the treatment of headache, common cold, stomachache, eye diseases, eczema, skin boils, gastritis, diarrhea, bleeding, rheumatism, inflammation, and infections of the upper respiratory tract in traditional medicine (Karakas et al, 2014). Traditional usage of wound healing activity of B. perennis was scientifically verified for the first time in vivo. (Karakas et al, 2012)
Iroquois used Bellis as a gastrointestinal aid (Moerman 1998).
B. perennis has exhibited anti-tumor activity (Karakas et al, 2014).
It has been shown effective in lightening melanin pigmentation spots in facial skin, melasma (Costa et al 2010), and age spots (John et al 2005).
Fresh and or dried leaves are used to soak bandages in for binding wounds. Masticated or pounded leaves, again either fresh or dried, are used as a poultice to draw out infection and aid in wound healing. These uses earned Bellis its nickname, Bruisewort, as it aids in stimulating healing through its anti-inflammatory and increased circulatory [blood moving] properties. Bellis's triterpenes contribute to these effects. (Al-Snafi 2015)
Bellis, as one of a group of three herbs–Arnica, Calendula and Bellis, all with similar constituents–can be used individually or in concert to achieve similar healing effects (Campidoglio 2018). A randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled study found that Bellis perennis in conjunction with Arnica montana may reduce postpartum blood loss, as compared with placebo (Oberman et al 2005). This is particularly interesting as Arnica is usually not used on open wounds but the traditional use of Bellis does include use on open wounds and has proven very effective in vivo (Karakas 2012).
An infusion of the leaves has been used as an insect repellent (Schery 1972).
FOOD USES Flowers in tea; leaves in salad or as a pot herb; leaves and roots as decoction and crushed for a poultice (Gerald 1597) and Karakas et al 2012).
ACTIONS Vulnerary, Astringent, Expectorant, Anti-inflammatory, Cicatriscant (The Plant Medicine School). Other Actions: Anodyne, Antidiarrheal, Antispasmodic, Antitussive, Cancer, Demulcent, Digestive, Emollient, Expectorant, Laxative, Ophthalmic, Purgative, Tonic (PFAF)
PREPARATIONS Tincture, Emollient, Infusion, Poultice, Decoction, Pot herb.
No known issues, except contraindicated with blood thinning pharmaceuticals, Bellis perennis may affect coagulation and it is unclear how this herb may interact with medications that may increase the risk of bleeding. Examples include aspirin, anticoagulants ("blood thinners") such as warfarin (Coumadin®) or heparin, anti-platelet drugs such as clopidogrel (Plavix®), and non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDS) such as ibuprofen (Motrin®, Advil®) or naproxen (Naprosyn®, Aleve®). Caution is advised. (Kruidwis). Avoid during pregnancy and breastfeeding.
Adults (18 years and older) Based on available scientific evidence, there is no proven safe or effective dose for Bellis perennis. One cup of tea made from 2 teaspoons of dried Bellis perennis herb steeped in 300 milliliters of boiling water for 20 minutes, and then strained, has been taken two to four times daily. Typical homeopathic doses used are 1 or 2 (6C or 30C potency) tablets dissolved on the tongue. For general acute conditions, one dose every two hours repeated for a maximum of six doses has been used. For less acute conditions (e.g. seasonal or chronic), one dose three times a day between meals for no more than one month has been used. Children (younger than 18 years) Based on available scientific evidence, there is no proven safe or effective dose for Bellis perennis. In general, 1 or 2 homeopathic 6C or 30C potency tablets dissolved on the tongue have been used. For general acute conditions, one dose every two hours for up to six doses has been used. For less acute conditions (e.g. seasonal or chronic), one dose three times a day between meals for no more than one month has been used. (Kruidwis)
TASTE Bitter, sour (Solidarity 2019)
ENERGY Cool/dry (Solidarity 2019)
REFERENCESAl-Snafi, Ali. (2015). The Pharmacological importance of Bellis perennis - A review. International Journal of Phytotherapy. 5. 63-69.
Bader G, Kulhanek Y, Ziegler-Böhme H. Zur antimyzetischen Wirksamkeit von Polygalasäureglycosiden [The antifungal action of polygalacic acid glycosides]. Pharmazie. 1990 Jul;45(8):618-20. German. PMID: 2080212.
Campidoglio, Pierluigi. (2018) Arnica, Calendula and Bellis. Herbalists Without Borders. Retrieved November 27, 2020 https://www.hwbglobal.org/blog/arnica-calendula-Bellis
Costa A, Moisés TA, Cordero T, Alves CR, Marmirori J. Association of emblica, licorice and belides as an alternative to hydroquinone in the clinical treatment of melasma. An Bras Dermatol. 2010 Sep-Oct;85(5):613-20. doi: 10.1590/s0365-05962010000500003. PMID: 21152784.
Desevedavy C, Amoros M, Girre L, Lavaud C, Massiot G. Antifungal agents: in vitro and in vivo antifungal extract from the common daisy, Bellis perennis. J Nat Prod. 1989 Jan-Feb;52(1):184-5. doi: 10.1021/np50061a027. PMID: 2723666.
Gerald, John (1597) The Herbal, or General History of Plants. Part 3 CHAP. 204. Of little Daisies.
John, Sabrina & Lorenz, Peter & Petersen, Rolf-Dieter & Heldermann, Martina & Borchert, Stefan. (2005). Skin-Lighthening Agent with Different Pathways of Action on Melanogenesis. SÖFW-Journal. 131. 40-49.
Karakas, FP, öhreto lu D, Liptaj T, Štujber M, Ucar Turker A, Marák J, Çal , Yalç n FN. Isolation of an oleanane-type saponin active from Bellis perennis through antitumor bioassay-guided procedures. Pharm Biol. 2014 Aug;52(8):951-5. Retrieved November 27, 2020 https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/24617777/
Karaka FP, Karaka A, Boran Ç, Türker AU, Yalçin FN, Bilensoy E. The evaluation of topical administration of Bellis perennis fraction on circular excision wound healing in Wistar albino rats. Pharm Biol. 2012 Aug;50(8):1031-7. doi: 10.3109/13880209.2012.656200. PMID: 22775421. Retrieved November 27, 2020 https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/22775421/
Kress, Henriette Bellis perennis. Retrieved November 27, 2020. https://www.henriettes-herb.com/plants/Bellis perennis.html
Kruidwis Bellis perennis / Madeliefje Retrieved December 1, 2020 https://sites.google.com/site/kruidwis/planten-van-a-tot-z/Bellis perennis-madeliefje
Mattioli, Pietro Andrea (Matthiolus, New-Kreuterbuch, 1626. P. 313.)
Moerman, Daniel. (1998) Native American Ethnobotany Timber Press. Oregon. P. 121.
Morikawa T, Li X, Nishida E, Ito Y, Matsuda H, Nakamura S, Muraoka O, Yoshikawa M. perennisosides I-VII, acylated triterpene saponins with antihyperlipidemic activities from the flowers of Bellis perennis. J Nat Prod. 2008 May;71(5):828-35. doi: 10.1021/np8000333. Epub 2008 Mar 26. PMID: 18363378.
Morikawa T, Muraoka O, Yoshikawa M. [Pharmaceutical food science: search for anti-obese constituents from medicinal foods-anti-hyperlipidemic saponin constituents from the flowers of Bellis perennis]. Yakugaku Zasshi. 2010 May;130(5):673-8. Japanese. doi: 10.1248/yakushi.130.673. PMID: 20460863.
Oberbaum, Menachem, et al. "The Effect of the Homeopathic Remedies Arnica Montana and Bellis perennis On Mild Postpartum Bleeding--a Randomized, Double-blind, Placebo-controlled Study--preliminary Results." Complementary Therapies in Medicine, vol. 13, no. 2, 2005, pp. 87-90.
Plants for a Future (PFAF) - Bellis perennis Retrived December 1, 2020 https://pfaf.org/user/plant.aspx?LatinName=Bellis perennis
Pliny the Elder. The Natural History. Translated by John Bostock, M.D., F.R.S. H.T. Riley, Esq., B.A. London. Taylor and Francis, Red Lion Court, Fleet Street. 1855. BOOK XXVI. Chap. 13.
Schery, R.W. Plants for Man 2nd ed. Englewood Cliffs 1972
Solidarity Apothecary Daisy. 2019. Retrieved December 1, 2020 https://solidarityapothecary.org/daisy-plant-profile/
The Plant Medicine School - Daisy Retrieved December 1, 2020 https://theplantmedicineschool.com/plants/daisy
Wikipedia Bellis perennis. Retrieved December 14, 2020 https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Bellis_perennis
Yoshikawa M, Li X, Nishida E, Nakamura S, Matsuda H, Muraoka O, Morikawa T. Medicinal flowers. XXI. Structures of perennis saponins A, B, C, D, E, and F, acylated oleanane-type triterpene oligoglycosides, from the flowers of Bellis perennis. Chem Pharm Bull (Tokyo). 2008 Apr;56(4):559-68. doi: 10.1248/cpb.56.559. PMID: 18379108.